Monthly Archives: April 2015

To Compress or Not to Compress? – Part 2

Written by Student Kinesiologist Janice Leung

Last week I discussed some of the research behind compression socks in Part 1. If you missed out, you can find it here. This time I will be talking about the differences between compression socks and sleeves and share my own experience. Let’s get right to it.

So, Socks or Sleeves?

CEP sleeves

In reality, the only difference between socks and sleeves is that the compression will only start above the ankle when wearing sleeves. You may find out that you simply prefer one over the other. However, wearing sleeves for racing allows runners to wear their favourite lucky racing socks. Plus, imagine having to stuff your hot, swelling feet into full socks in the transition from swim to bike or bike to run during a triathlon. It would be less tricky to pull on calf sleeves than socks. For minimalist lovers, sleeves will allow them to still wear Vibram Fivefingers. Injinji now actually makes toe compression socks in addition to a whole variety of toe running socks, so runners can wear their Vibrams and receive compression through the feet. Although there are different opinions on wearing compression sleeves for racing and recovery, it may be best to wear sleeves only during exercise so that blood does not pool in the feet during more static recovery.

Take note that there are specific brands and models of sleeves that are meant for post-workout recovery. For instance, CEP does not advise customers to use their calf sleeves for recovery because their compression grade increases blood flow during activity, but not during rest. Now they have made specific recovery socks, just like other companies such as 2XU.

When purchasing socks or sleeves, look for those with graduated compression. It is better than constant compression because there is decreasing compression from the ankle to the knee which makes it more effective. Look for sleeves or socks that have around 20 mmHg as their medical compression grade. Sometimes the compression grade may be listed as a range, ie. “15-20 mmHg”, which indicates that it is 15 mmHg at the calf and 20 mmHg at the ankle.

My Experience During Workouts:


I have unfortunate large muscles for the small anterior and posterior compartments in my lower legs, so when my calves are tighter than usual and they begin to tighten and swell, the socks can give quite a squeeze. At first, I thought that maybe I was just not well suited for compression socks. But I gave a few more tries and ended up liking it. I find that my calves adjust after 10 minutes or so, and then they don’t feel overly constricted and actually feel good! Usually I find that my calves (as well as the tibialis anterior muscles) feel well recovered and not overly fatigued or sore for workouts the following day.


I never considered wearing sleeves, but my friends had them and seemed to like them. So when they went up on sale, I thought, why not? When I first wore them on a run, contrary to everyone’s concern about the sleeves, I didn’t feel like my feet were pooling with blood or, on the other end of the spectrum, feeling numb. I was quite aware that my feet were not receiving the compression love, as there was quite a contrast in tightness between my calves and feet. However, I still felt the same benefits as wearing compression socks once I felt adjusted to them. Again, the day after wearing them, my lower legs feel ready for another challenge. Perhaps if you suffer from any feet pain such as plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendinopathy (tendonitis), it may be better to use socks to receive compression below the ankles as well. Note however, that different brands will have different sizing or comfort. I found that Zoot recovery socks don’t give enough compression in my small feet and through my arches. Currently, I’ve found performance 2XU socks to do pretty well.

Post workouts:


After strenuous workouts or long runs, I try to make sure that I get my recovery specific socks on for at least a few hours if possible. I can secretly also feel a tad less guilty if I do not have the time to roll or stretch, and justify that I am putting in some effort for recovery and prehabilitation. I have not tried recovery specific sleeves before, so I can’t comment on them.


Whether you wear the socks during or after races and workouts, and they make you feel better and perform better, then no one is to say that they do not work for you. The bonus is that while you know people in their cars are staring at you as you cross the street, you can hold your head up high and jaunt effortlessly in epic, professional looking running gear. If you are looking for any advantage and have the budget, find and test out the brand and type of socks or sleeves that work best for you. My advice is that if your running performance is quite important and you have troubles with tightness below the knee, try it out. Wear them in a variety of workouts to determine how they feel for you and how it affects your running. Then you can decide whether you want to race in them or not. If you plan to race in compression gear, train like you race; wear your socks for key workouts to simulate race conditions. Ultimately within the current research, there is no definitive verdict as to whether compression socks truly boost your performance levels or not. But at the very least, these socks surely help with recovery and can help decrease muscle soreness.

Movéo sells Compressport full socks and sleeves.

To Compress or Not to Compress? – Part 1

Written by Student Kinesiologist Janice Leung

These days, it is not uncommon to see runners sporting an assortment of high knee socks at races, or on the sidewalks through your car window. As many professional runners have now donned the compression calf sleeves or full socks, many have followed suit in hopes of enhancing their performances. However, the question remains whether or not there is true benefit to wearing such head-turning socks.

Whether it is compression socks or full compression tights, the main principle is to increase blood and lymph flow while preventing blood pooling in the lower legs. This is useful clinically in those that have deep vein thrombosis, varicose veins or any conditions with blood circulation difficulties (Metzler, 2008). The compression also comes in handy for those that travel a lot because sitting for extended periods of time will lead to blood pooling in the legs. Similarly, those that are forced to sit all day or stand for several hours at work can benefit from compression. Another reason to wear compression clothing is to decrease muscle vibration by compressing and hugging the musculature. Every footstrike sends force and vibrations upwards into the muscles and tendons of the lower legs (Magness, 2010). This is one of the theories behind what causes DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness). Both motives of promoting blood flow and minimizing vibrations contribute to the overall goal of increasing venous flow and decreasing the by-products that accumulate and lead to muscular fatigue (Magness, 2010). Essentially, the goal is to bring in good nutrients such as oxygen, and to flush out muscular waste.

Elmarie Terblanche, a sports physiology professor from Stellenbosch University of South Africa, conducted the first real-world study involving athletes competing in the Two Oceans ultra-race (O’Mara, 2013). It was found that athletes who raced in compression socks, compared to those in regular knee-high socks and those that raced in neither, experienced significantly less muscle damage and even ran an average of 12 minutes faster (O’Mara, 2013). Massey University of New Zealand conducted a study where twelve runners performed five 10km time trials and a vertical jump test was performed before and after each 10km (Ali, Creasy, & Edge, 2011). Subjects wore either a “control” sock without significant compression or “high”, “medium”, or “low” degrees of compression. Both subjects in “high” compressive and non-compressive socks had a decrease in their jump heights, but those that wore “low” and “medium” degrees of compression had in fact increased their heights. Ali and colleagues (2011) stated that no significant effects on lactate accumulation or heart rate were found when wearing compression socks. However, evidence in the vertical jump heights of the subjects that wore “low” and “medium” degrees of compression led to the premise that the subjects’ muscles were less fatigued during their 10km time trial with the socks on (Ali et al., 2011). Therefore the socks assisted in improving muscle recovery.

From personal experience, after grueling workouts where I know my calves took a beating, I jump straight into my compression socks. (Though in reality, it actually takes a bit of a sweaty effort to squeeze my calves in.) Sometimes when I have little niggles (small aches that runners tend to ignore and run through) that are anywhere from my heels up to my knees, I don the tight socks. And most of the time, the pain subsides after I wear the socks long enough. Sadly, compression socks and sleeves are not magical; they will not help kiss your problems below the knee goodbye. For serious injuries, my best advice is to seek professional help, book in for an appointment at Movéo! But usually the day after wearing the socks, my calves feel much fresher and ready to tackle the next workout.

Stay tuned for next week when I compare compression socks to sleeves and give details on my own experience in using compression gear.


Ali, A., Creasy, R.H., & Edge, J.H. (2011). The effect of graduated compression stockings on running performance. J Strength Cond Res, 25(5), 1385-92. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d6848e.
Magness, S. (2010, Jul). Compression Socks. Retrieved from
Metzler, B. (2008, Jul 22). Owner’s Manual: Do Compression Socks Work? Retrieved from
O’Mara, K. (2013, Dec 11). Do Compression Socks Really Work? Retrieved from